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Pets, Parasites & You

Pets are family and it is extremely important to keep them healthy and free of parasites.
Parasites can affect your pet in a variety of ways from skin irritation to life-threatening diseases. They also can infect and transmit life threatening diseases to you and your family also. Your veterinarian can help prevent, accurately diagnose and safely treat parasites and other health problems that not only affect your dog or cat, but also the safety of you and your family.

What are the common parasites that affect pets?

  • Tapeworm
  • Roundworm
  • Hookworm
  • Whipworm
  • Flea
  • Tick
  • Mite
  • Chewing Lice

Reducing risks for your family

You can reduce the risk of parasitic infection to your family by eliminating parasites from pets; restricting access to contaminated areas, and other high-traffic areas; and practicing good personal hygiene. Disposing of pet feces on a regular basis can help remove potentially infective worm eggs before they become distributed in the environment and are picked up or ingested by pets or humans.

Round the year prevention

Parasites are everywhere and can infect your pet any time of year. External parasites, such as fleas and ticks, may be less prevalent outside during certain times of the year; however, they often survive in the house during the winter months, creating an uninterrupted life cycle. Other internal parasites, such as worms, may affect your pet all year long. Consult with your veterinarian to implement a year-round parasite control program.

What can you do?

You can help by implementing a year-round pet parasite control program to reduce the risks of parasite infection and transmission. By following a few simple guidelines, you can do this:
  • Practice good hygiene
  • Use preventative flea/tick treatment year-round
  • Administer worming medications as recommended by your veterinarian
  • Only feed pets cooked or prepared food (not raw meat).
  • Minimize exposure to areas of contamination
  • Clean up pet feces regularly and dispose them responsibly
  • Visit your veterinarian for annual testing and physical examination.
  • Ask your veterinarian about parasite infection risks and effective year-round preventative control measures administered monthly.

When to use anti-flea & tick products?

It is recommended that Spot-On application should be used once-a-month; There are spot-ons available in the market that break life cycle of fleas and ticks in addition to killing adult fleas and ticks. This will help you to have control of flea and tick population and reduce chances of re-infestation.

Frequently asked questions

Do fleas & ticks present a health risk to your family?
Yes. Fleas and ticks can carry and either directly or indirectly transmit several potential illnesses of humans. For example, rickettsiosis (infection with Rickettsia) can be transmitted directly by ticks. Bartonellosis (infection with Bartonella) is transmitted between cats by fleas and then may spread to people. Also, fleas serve as an intermediate host for tapeworms, which can infect both humans and pets.
What kind of intestinal worms infect pets?
There are a number of intestinal worms that can infect dogs and cats, and they vary according to the species. In general, these include roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and tapeworms, and they are very prolific. In fact, one worm can produce more than 100,000 eggs per day, which are then passed in the pet’s feces and spread throughout the area the pet roams. Once in the environment, some of these eggs can remain infective and present a health risk for your pet and humans for years
If my pet has intestinal worms, how does this affect humans?
Roundworms are the most common intestinal parasite of pets and the most likely to be transmitted to humans. Humans can accidentally ingest infective worm eggs that have been passed through the pet’s feces and left in the environment.  Especially children are at high risk as they unknowingly ingest the parasites. The eggs can then hatch in the human’s intestinal tract, and the immature worms can travel to various tissues in the body, including the eyes and brain, potentially causing serious infections.

Preventing Zoonotic diseases

Human-animal interactions enrich our lives. But, this can also pose risks to both humans and animals. One of these risks is the spread of disease between humans and animals. Fortunately, preventive measures and good hygiene are simple ways to reduce the risk of disease.

What are zoonotic diseases?

 

Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be spread between animals and people. They can be caused by pathogens (disease-causing organisms) such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. Examples include rabies, Salmonella, just to name a few. At least 65 percent of recent major disease outbreaks have zoonotic origins, and 75 percent of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic. Emerging zoonosis can come from many animal species, including pets.

How are zoonotic diseases spread?

 

Zoonotic diseases can be spread in a number of ways. Some methods of transmission include:

Fecal-oral transmission occurs when people ingest small, usually invisible, amounts of stool or droppings containing a pathogen. It is often an unintentional exposure because the person does not realize, or forgets, that they came in contact with fecal material. This can occur when a person does not thoroughly wash his hands after handling infected animals or items from an animal’s environment.

Foodborne transmission occurs when people ingest food contaminated with a pathogen, or if a person handles contaminated pet food, uncooked meat or fomites and does not wash his/her hands before handling foods or drinks. Examples of pathogens that can be transmitted in this way include Salmonella, E. coli, etc…

Insect-borne transmission occurs when insects carry a pathogen from an infected animal or person and transfer it to another animal or person.

Direct contact occurs when a person becomes infected through touching or handling an infected animal or through a bite, scratch, or contact with the eyes, nose or mouth of an infected animal. Rabies, ringworm and are examples of zoonotic diseases spread through direct contact.

Indirect contact occurs when a pathogen is transmitted without physical contact with the animal. Many pathogens can survive outside a person or animal for a period of time. Some pathogens can survive well in water and soil, or on inanimate objects, also known as fomites. These items can transfer pathogens such as Salmonella, Leptospira and fecal parasites from place to place, animal to animal and from animals to people.

What zoonotic diseases can I get from pets and other domestic animals?

 

This list doesn’t include every disease you can get from pets and other domestic animals, but below are some examples:

  • coli infection (caused by the E. coli bacteria)
  • Leptospirosis (caused by Leptospira bacteria)
  • Rabies (caused by the rabies virus)
  • Ringworm (caused by certain fungi)
  • Salmonellosis (caused by the Salmonella bacteria)
  • Toxoplasmosis (caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Toxocariasis (caused by Toxocara parasites – also called roundworms)

Are certain people at higher risk of being infected with zoonotic diseases?

 

Children are at higher risk of infection because they are less likely to thoroughly wash their hands immediately after handling animals; they might not have fully developed immune function; and they are more likely to put their hands and other objects in their mouths.

Young children, pregnant women, older people, and anyone with certain health conditions such as chronic respiratory disease, heart disease or a weakened immune system should be extra careful when interacting with animals because these conditions make them more likely to become severely ill if infected.

Examples of conditions that cause a weaker immune system include HIV/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and people undergoing treatment with chemotherapy, steroids or other immune-suppressing medications. People who are around animals often are also more likely to be exposed to a zoonotic pathogen. If you fall into any of these groups, take extra precautions to protect yourself.

How can I reduce the risk to my family?

 

Sometimes animals carrying a zoonotic disease appear perfectly healthy. It is important to practice these habits with all animals, even if they do not appear to be sick.

  • Wash your hands with soap and running water:
  • After petting or handling any animal
  • After you’ve cleaned up after your pet or livestock or handled their bedding
  • After handling uncooked food for you or your pet After handling any pet or animal food
  • Before preparing food or drinks for yourself or others and before eating or drinking

Make sure children wash their hands after touching an animal, whether at a petting zoo, fair, pond, beach, backyard, or any other place that they get to interact with animals. Children should also avoid touching their eyes, nose, and mouth until after they’ve thoroughly washed their hands. To help prevent illness and injury, keep children under 5 years of age away from areas where pets are fed.

Make sure children stay away from wildlife, and that they do not pet unknown dogs or cats without the owner’s permission.

Keep your pet healthy.

 

Make sure your pet receives regular preventive veterinary care including vaccinations (talk to your veterinarian about the appropriate vaccinations for your pet) and flea, tick and intestinal parasite preventives.

  • Vaccinate your pets (including indoor cats!) against rabies.
  • Clean up after your pets
  • Discard pet waste in a tightly sealed, impermeable bag. Small biodegradable or plastic bags work well.
  • Pet waste can contain harmful bacteria and parasites, so young children should not clean up after pets.
  • Store pet foods separate from people foods, and feed your pets in separate areas from where you eat or prepare food for you and your family.
  • For your health as well as your pet’s health, don’t share your food with your pet.

A word about reverse zoonotic diseases

 

Reverse zoonoses occur when a person spreads a disease to an animal. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be spread to people from animals (zoonotic disease), but it can also be spread to animals from people (reverse zoonotic disease) and then possibly back to people from the infected animal.

Fortunately, the same precautions described above are effective ways to reduce the risk of making your pet sick.

Why is my dog so itchy?

Flea and Flea Allergy Dermatitis

 

One common cause of itching in pets is a hypersensitivity to flea bites, also known as flea allergy dermatitis. It doesn’t take many fleas to whip your pet into a scratching and grooming frenzy, but the condition isn’t always easy to identify and is frequently mistaken for a rash. Often, you won’t see any fleas because they spend most of their lives off of your pet.

Your veterinarian may want to use a flea comb to look for the little critters or their “dirt” (excrement). If there are any fleas, your veterinarian will put your pet on a flea preventative and perform further tests to rule out other causes of itch.

If your pet is diagnosed with flea allergy dermatitis, your veterinarian will dispense medication to control the itch and will recommend an aggressive flea control plan for your pet, his environment, and other pets in the house.

Prevention is simple: keep your pet from getting fleas! Talk to your veterinarian about the best flea prevention methods for your pet.

 

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF FLEA ALLERGY

  • Hair loss, especially along the back and hind end
  • Chewing and biting at the tail, hind end, and hind legs
  • Skin damage due to a lot of scratching and licking

 

It could be mites!

Fleas aren’t the only parasites that like to live on your pet. Mites can also be a pain, though they are a whole lot smaller. The two most common types of mites – sarcoptes and demodex – can cause secondary skin infections in addition to itching.

And while sarcoptes mites tend to affect the ears, elbows, and chest of a pet, demodex mites are less particular and can appear anywhere on a pet’s body. If your veterinarian suspects that your pet has mites, he or she will perform skin scrapings to look at under a microscope. However, sometimes this isn’t enough – mites are so small, they can’t always be detected, so your veterinarian may choose to treat your pet based on suspicion of mites.

One thing to note: if your pet has highly-contagious sarcoptes mites, all pets in the household need to be treated.

 

Treatment for mites includes:

 

  • Shampoos
  • Topical preventives
  • Sanitation, especially cleaning and vacuuming bedding
  • Medications to control the itch and treat secondary skin infections

 

Bacterial and Fungal infections

 

An itch has to be scratched, but all that increased scratching by your pet damages the skin, which can result in bacterial and fungal infections as secondary conditions to itching.

Common signs of infection include inflamed, reddened skin, areas of hair loss, and ear infections. These infections also often cause your pet to have an unpleasant odour. In order to diagnose a bacterial or fungal infection, your veterinarian will collect samples for culture or examination under a microscope.

 

Food allergies

 

Tiny organisms aren’t the only thing that can give your pet allergies. Food can also cause problems, and food allergies often arise out of the blue. When a pet becomes sensitive to food – often a protein like chicken, beef, or lamb – that he used to easily tolerate, food allergies could be the culprit. This can happen at any time, even if a pet’s diet remains unchanged. It’s not always easy to distinguish food allergies from a simple upset stomach or other allergic conditions, but if the symptoms persist, food allergies may be the cause.

Food allergies cause itching, stomach problems, vomiting, weight loss, skin and ear infections, lethargy and decreased activity

If food allergies are suspected, your veterinarian will perform a physical exam and ask for a detailed history of your pet’s food intake. But the only way to diagnose a food allergy is through hypoallergenic diet trial to see if it reduces your pet’s symptoms. The diet shouldn’t contain anything your pet has recently eaten and he won’t be able to eat any treats or supplements unless approved by your veterinarian.

The only treatment for food allergy is avoidance. This may seem like common sense – don’t feed your pet foods to which he is allergic. But it’s not always easy to identify foods that are both nutritionally balanced and devoid of problem ingredients for your pet. Your veterinarian will help guide you and your pet for long-term diet management.

Atopic Dermatitis

 

Sometimes, the answer to your pet’s itching problem is “none of the above.” If your pet continues to itch for no apparent reason, there’s a chance he has atopic dermatitis. Similar to “hay fever” in people, atopic dermatitis is caused by a reaction to environmental allergens such as pollen, mould spores, or plant fibres. If your pet is diagnosed with atopic dermatitis, allergy testing and allergen-specific immuno-therapy may be the best option from your pet.

If your pet has been diagnosed with Atopic Dermatitis, you need to ensure that you remain patient and take medications as recommended by your veterinarian as per the dose and duration.

Fortunately, there are medications that act on the root cause of Atopic Dermatitis. It is important to weigh short term cost of treatment with long term gain in terms of benefits.

Talk to your veterinarian now on options available to keep your pet itch-free.

Things to do as a pet parent

He is your treasure. So making sure they are as happy and healthy as can be is a must for you.

 

  • Get Regular health checkups done by veterinarian
  • Get vaccinations done as per veterinarian’s advice
  • Worms can grow inside your pet. Regularly worm your pet as per your veterinarian’s advice
  • Bathe your pet regularly with shampoos and soaps
  • Spend as much time as possible with your pet
  • Train your pet early
  • Avoid flea and tick infestations by keeping his bedding and surroundings clean & also using anti-flea and tick preventives regularly
  • Give your pet the best nutrition and keep a tap on his weight
  • Give your pet a healthy exercise routine
  • Show attention to his oral health
  • Groom your pet regularly to keep him fresh and healthy
  • Do not self-medicate. Always take veterinarian’s advice before using any medicines

Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs

My Dog Has Been Diagnosed with Atopic Dermatitis. What’s Next?

 

Atopic dermatitis is similar to asthma in people, but as an allergic skin condition, it causes your pet to itch. It’s caused by a dog’s natural sensitivity to common environmental substances like pollen, mold spores, and dust mites. There are many treatment options to consider, but in general it takes a combination of treatments to manage your pet’s symptoms, and it may take several tries to get it right.

Taking the First Step.

 

Each pet is different, and response to treatment depends on biology, breed, and environmental factors. There’s no single right answer – what works for one pet might have no effect on another. Your veterinarian will help you work through the process to get your pet back to feeling him or herself.

There are two ways to identify factors in your pet’s environment that are causing discomfort: intradermal skin testing and blood testing. Once you are able to determine the offending allergens, you can work to control them and treat your pet as appropriate.

What’s next?

 

Depending on what you find through allergy testing, your vet may recommend allergen-specific immunotherapy to help desensitize your pet to the offending allergens. This involves exposing your dog to gradually increasing amounts of the allergens to which he’s reacting. Think of it as having your dog face his fears: over time, his body will become accustomed to these allergens and the severity and frequency of symptoms will lessen. Immunotherapy is the only way to change the long-term course of atopic dermatitis.

Your veterinarian may also recommend techniques to reduce exposure to the allergens in your pet’s environment. Other medical options include steroids and cyclosporine, which are generally effective but can cause side effects and long-term health issues for some pets. Antihistamines, fatty acids, and topical therapies can also help in mild cases of atopic dermatitis, especially when paired with other forms of treatment. Often, treating atopic dermatitis requires several different modes of treatment, and your pet may need to continue taking medications even during immunotherapy.

Besides medical treatment, What can I do?

 

Keeping your pet’s environment clean and free of allergens, combined with regular baths for your pet, can go a long way in giving him relief from the itchiness of atopic dermatitis.

Depending on the allergens affecting your pet, here are some ways to keep your pet’s environment clean:

Fungi and Mould Control

 

Sensitivity to moulds and fungi can cause allergies in many dogs. Here’s how to control fungi and mould:

  • Keep your pet off of the lawn after mowing and away from leaf litter and other organic debris
  • Reduce excessive indoor moisture in basements, bathrooms, etc.
  • Wash food and water bowls frequently using hot, soapy water
  • Bathe your dog with hypoallergenic shampoos as recommended by your veterinarian

 

Storage Mite Control

 

Ingestion of storage mites, sometimes found in dry pet food, may be a cause of allergies. To prevent this,

  • Buy small bags of food (less than a 30-day supply)
  • Store food in cool, dry areas in airtight containers
  • Consider an all-canned diet

 

Dust Mite Control

 

Hypersensitivity to house dust mites is another common allergy. It’s pretty difficult to completely eliminate dust mites, but because they prefer warm, humid environments and often live in beds, carpets, and furniture, you can reduce their numbers using certain techniques:

  • Reduce carpeting and upholstered furniture, and vacuum often
  • Reduce dust collectors such as houseplants
  • Change furnace and air conditioning filters often
  • Wash your pet’s bedding weekly in hot water
  • Cover dog beds with plastic

Itching in dogs can be caused by fleas, food or environmental allergens such as pollens, molds or house-dust mites.

 

The 4 most common allergies are:

 

  • Flea allergy
  • Environmental allergens like pollen, mould and dust mites
  • Food allergy
  • Contact allergy (carpets, deodrants, and shampoo)
Little girl taking care of her dog and cat

Basic Puppy Training Timeline

7-8 weeks old

 

Basic Cues (Sit, Stay, Come)

You can start with basic cues as early as 7 weeks old: Say a cue such as “sit” once. Use a treat to position your dog into a sitting position. Once sitting, give your puppy the treat and some praise.

 

Leash Training

You can start leash training indoors at this age. Because puppies don’t have their full vaccinations at this point, it is unsafe for them to be walking around where other dogs walk.

Start by letting them wear the collar/harness for short amounts of time while providing treats. Increase this duration slowly. Once your puppy knows how to come to you, you can walk around inside on the leash with no distractions. You can move the training outside once your puppy has all their vaccinations.

 

General Handling

Get your puppy used to being touched. Gently rub their ears and paws while rewarding them. This will get them used to having those areas touched and will make veterinary visits and nail trims less stressful when they are older!

 

8-10 weeks old

 
Crate Training

Your puppy should see their crate as a safe and calm place. Start by bringing them to their crate for 10- minute intervals while they are nice and calm. Reward them for going in their crate. You can even feed them in their crate to create a positive environment.

 

10-12 weeks old

 
Learning Not to Bite

Puppies become mouthy at this age. Putting things in their mouths is how they explore their world, but it is important to teach them not to bite your hands or ankles. When they start biting at you, redirect them to a more appropriate object to bite, such as a toy.

 

12-16 weeks old

 
Potty Training

Maintaining a schedule is important for potty training. Make sure to take your puppy out first thing in the morning, after eating, and after playtime and naps throughout the day. At this point they should start having enough bladder control to learn to hold it. Reward your puppy with a treat every time they go to the bathroom outside.

 

6 months old

 

Puppies are entering the adolescence stage by this point, and it is the most difficult stage to start training at. That is why it is important to start training them as young as possible! At this stage you will continue training to solidify and strengthen their skills in more public and distracting settings such as dog parks.

Why cats make amazing companions?

Cats are quiet

 

If noise levels are a concern in your living situation, cats are a great choice of pet. Even the quietest bark will likely be much louder than the most insistent meowing. Depending on the cat, you may need to worry about other sounds such as them knocking things off of surfaces or running around at top speed, but they are still likely to be quieter overall. 

Cats are low-maintenance

 

Compared to dogs, cats are a low maintenance pet. They don’t require formal training, they don’t need to be taken out multiple times a day, and they’re even able to take care of basic self-cleaning. Of course, long-haired cats will still require regular grooming, but it will likely involve less regular grooming than long-haired dogs.

 

Cats are easy to train

 

One of the biggest challenges dog owners need to overcome is the process of house-training a new puppy. Kittens, on the other hand, usually know how to use the litter box as soon as you bring them home. All you need to do is show them where it is, and they’ll instinctively use it. 

 

Cats make great apartment pets

 

When it comes to pets in apartments, cats are often better suited than dogs. Compared to dogs, cats require less space and can take better advantage of vertical space. Even in apartments with small square footage, you can make the space comfortable for cats by adding different vertical levels. Plus, since they use litter boxes, they don’t need to be taken outside multiple times a day – something that can be time-consuming if you live in a large apartment building.

Cats are independent

 

One of the best things about cats is that they are very independent creatures. Unlike dogs, who require quite a high level of attention each day, cats are quite happy to have time to themselves. In fact, cats will sleep for about 15 hours a day so you don’t have to worry about them being too bored when you’re at work. When you are home, cats are also more likely to be content with just being in your company, whereas dogs may demand your undivided attention.

Cats keep unwanted pests out of your house

 

Cats are hardwired to stalk, hunt, and pounce on their prey, which makes them perfect for keeping your home free of unwanted pests – be it mice, bugs, or something else. Even their presence can be enough of a deterrent for rodents as their scent can act as a repellent.

How to improve your senior pet’s quality of life?

Our pets are truly members of the family, offering us love and companionship. It’s not always easy to see our beloved pets enter their senior years, but understanding their needs can help keep them happy and healthy.

Here are a few points to consider.

 

Take particular care on health and wellness

It is important to take your pet to the veterinarian for regular wellness care. The doctor may suggest routine lab work to monitor for abnormalities. Just like humans, pets can develop issues with organ function as they age. Medications can help regulate the functioning of their heart, kidneys, liver, and thyroid, and this will increase their comfort and potentially help prolong their life. Also like humans, pets are susceptible to developing arthritis. Supplements, medications, acupuncture, or physical therapy can help their ability to remain active.

 

Focus on his cognitive function

Like humans who become senile or develop dementia, animals can have cognitive dysfunction. We may relate many of these symptoms to normal aging – symptoms such as pacing, forgetting daily routines, or having accidents in the house. A doctor can help diagnose cognitive dysfunction. If properly managed, it is possible to reduce the symptoms and increase your pet’s quality of life.

 

Give him the nutrition that is required at his age

Switch your pet’s food to one that’s specially formulated for seniors. A specialized diet can address an aging lifestyle. You will find a number of diets that increase fiber and add in supplements for joint health. Fatty acid supplements like fish oil can help maintain healthy skin and a healthy coat.

 

Make sure he feels comfortable

Comfort is key. Make sure you provide your senior pet with plenty of cushy bedding around your home and in your car. Try laying down rugs or runners to help your pet with traction on tile or hardwood. Does your pet love being social or going on walks but isn’t as physically capable? Think about getting your pet a wagon or stroller, allowing relaxation while enjoying the things they love! Have them join you at outdoor cafes for some low-key socialization. Kitties who enjoy the outdoors may benefit from a screened-in patio, bringing the outdoors inside.

 

Ensure that your senior pet has an active lifestyle

Stay active, or as active as possible. Keeping your pet mobile will help keep muscles and joints healthy. Keep up the frequent walks and throw the ball around, but limit exercise time so your pet won’t overdo it. Also, monitor for overheating on warmer days. Don’t forget to encourage an active mind; practice training exercises and engage your pet with toys that provide a mental challenge. For the food-motivated, play games that offer treats as prizes!

Allowing your pet to maintain its familiar lifestyle is paramount during the senior years. This, combined with routine medical care to manage physical health, can make all the difference in quality of life.

Help pets with pain stay happy

It is that time of the year when your pet may feel uncomfortable due to increased sensation of stiffness and pain in joints. Moreover, for pets who have osteoarthritis, this is one of the most challenging times. Also heart-breaking it is for pet parents to see their child writhing in pain, unable to move with ease because of painful joints. Pets can’t speak for themselves or share their feelings of pain or discomfort. And so, many of the cases can go undiagnosed. It is very important to pay close intention to changes in behaviour to know when it is hurting your pets. Let’s understand pain to beat pain, confidently

As a pet parent, you need to look out for signs in your pet that will alert you to take appropriate action. If you notice signs, it is important that you consult your veterinarian

  • Not playing as much as usual
  • Not going up or down stairs
  • Not willing to jump up onto surfaces, especially cats
  • Difficulty standing after lying down
  • Over grooming or licking a particular area
  • Making more noise than normal
  • Decreased appetite

Pain could either be acute or chronic. Acute Pain is sudden and is usually due to an injury or surgery performed. Chronic Pain occurs over time, is due conditions like Osteoarthritis or Hip dysplasia, which may go undiagnosed for many months.

Osteoarthritis

 

Osteoarthritis is a deterioration of cartilage surrounding the bones that is progressive and permanent. It is one of the most common problems in dogs with almost one in every 5 dogs having osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis can affect dogs of all ages and breeds and is very easily overlooked in younger dogs. Apart from the normal wear and tear of joints that can happen as pets grow old, osteoarthritis may also be due to genetics (some breeds are more likely to have more cases of osteoarthritis than others) or it could be due to nutritional issues or it could be due to lifestyle issues like being over-weight / obese.

While there is no simple cure that erases osteoarthritis, several strategies make a significant positive impact on its progression and effects. The initial signs could be that the dog limps while walking or has trouble standing up. Over time, matters can get really worse.

Osteoarthritis management requires “multi-modal care”. And as a pet parent, you have lots to do to ease pain and reduce further damage to your pet’s joints.

  • Learn to recognize signs of pain
  • Change your pet to a healthy diet and add supplements
  • Consult veterinarian for exercise requirements and put your pet on a healthy routine
  • Monitor your pet’s body weight regularly
  • Give complementary therapies like cold and heat pad application